What is The Waterfall Model?
Cascade Model is a successive model that separates programming improvement into pre-characterized stages. Each stage should be finished before the following stage can start with no cross-over between the stages. Each stage is intended for performing explicit movement during the SDLC stage. It was presented in 1970 by Winston Royce.
The Waterfall Model is a traditional and linear approach to
software development and project management within the Software Development
Life Cycle (SDLC). In the Waterfall Model, each phase must be completed before
the next one begins, and there is no overlapping or iterative process. Here are
its key characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages:
Advantages of the Waterfall Model:
and Well-Defined: The Waterfall Model is highly structured and easy to
understand. Each phase has specific deliverables and a defined set of
activities, making it easier to manage and plan.
Documentation: Each phase requires thorough documentation, which helps in
creating comprehensive project documentation. This is valuable for future
reference, maintenance, and audits.
Client Involvement: Once the project requirements are gathered and
documented, clients and stakeholders have limited involvement until the testing
and delivery phases. This can be an advantage when clients have limited time or
resources for active participation.
for Stable Requirements: It works well when the project requirements are
well-understood and unlikely to change during the development process.
to Manage: Due to its sequential nature, the Waterfall Model is relatively
easy to manage in terms of project progress tracking and resource allocation.
Disadvantages of the Waterfall Model:
One of the most significant drawbacks of the Waterfall Model is its lack of
flexibility. Changes to requirements, design, or scope are challenging and
costly to implement once a phase is completed.
Deliverables: Clients do not see any working software until the end of the
project. This can lead to late discovery of issues or misalignment with client
of Scope Creep: Clients may not fully understand their requirements at the
beginning of the project. This can lead to scope creep when new requirements
are introduced after the requirements phase is complete.
Client Feedback: With minimal client involvement until the testing phase,
there is limited opportunity for clients to provide feedback or make
adjustments early in the project.
Time to Deliver: The Waterfall Model can result in longer development
times, as each phase must be completed before moving on to the next. This can
be a disadvantage in fast-paced industries where quick releases are essential.
Risk: If requirements are not well-defined or change significantly during
the project, it can lead to project failure or significant delays.
Suitable for Complex Projects: It may not be the best choice for large,
complex projects where requirements are not well-understood or are likely to
In summary, the Waterfall Model is a structured and
document-centric approach to software development that works well for projects
with stable, well-defined requirements. However, it can be inflexible and may
not accommodate changes or evolving client needs effectively. It's essential to
carefully assess the project's characteristics and client requirements before
choosing the Waterfall Model as the SDLC methodology. In many modern software
development environments, more flexible and iterative approaches like Agile
have become popular alternatives to address some of the Waterfall Model's
The waterfall model is a sequential software development process in which progress flows like a waterfall, as shown in the image below.
The waterfall model is one of the oldest and most commonly used SDLC methodologies. It is also one of the simplest to understand and use. The main advantage of the waterfall model is that it is very easy to manage and control because each phase has specific deliverables and a review process. The disadvantage of the waterfall model is that it does not allow for much flexibility or adaptation once a phase has started. Also, if there are any problems in a phase, they can often only be fixed in the next phase, which can lead to delays and cost overruns.
When to utilize SDLC Waterfall Model?
Cascade Methodology can be utilized when:
Prerequisites are not changing oftentimes
The application isn't muddled and huge
Project is short
Prerequisite is clear
Climate is steady
Innovation and devices utilized are not dynamic and are steady
Assets are accessible and prepared