MVC Framework Tutorial for Beginners: What is, Architecture & Example - Shikshaglobe

Content Creator: Vijay Kumar

What is MVC Framework?

The Model-View-Controller (MVC) system is a design that isolates an application into three fundamental coherent parts Model, View, and Controller. Consequently the truncation of MVC. Every design part deals with the explicit improvement part of an application. MVC isolates the business rationale and show layer from one another. It was generally utilized for work area graphical UIs (GUIs). These days, MVC engineering in web innovation has become famous for planning web applications as well as portable applications.

History of MVC

MVC engineering was first talked about in 1979 by Trygve Reenskaug

MVC model was first presented in 1987 in the Smalltalk programming language.

MVC was the first time acknowledged as an overall idea, in a 1988 article

In the new time, MVC design is generally utilized in current web applications

Read More: Interaction, Collaboration, Sequence Diagrams with EXAMPLES-

Elements of MVC

Simple and frictionless testability. Profoundly testable, extensible, and pluggable structure

To plan a web application design utilizing the MVC design, it offers full command over your HTML as well as your URLs

Influence existing highlights gave by ASP.NET, JSP, Django, and so forth.

Clear division of rationale: Model, View, Controller. Division of use errands viz. business rationale, Ul rationale, and information rationale

URL Routing for SEO Friendly URLs. Strong URL planning for conceivable and accessible URLs

Upholds for Test Driven Development (TDD)

If you're stepping into the world of web development, understanding the Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework is a crucial first step. MVC is a design pattern used in developing web applications to separate concerns, making your code more organized, maintainable, and scalable. In this beginner's tutorial, we'll explore what MVC is, its architecture, and provide an example to illustrate its principles.

What is MVC?

MVC stands for Model-View-Controller, and it's a software architectural pattern that divides your web application into three interconnected components, each with a specific responsibility:

1.     Model (M): This represents the data and the business logic of your application. It handles data storage, retrieval, and manipulation. The Model is the heart of your application.

2.     View (V): The View is responsible for presenting data to users. It deals with the user interface, displaying information from the Model and collecting user input.

3.     Controller (C): The Controller acts as an intermediary between the Model and the View. It receives user input from the View, processes it, interacts with the Model to update data, and returns the appropriate response to the View.

MVC Architecture

The MVC architecture provides a clear separation of concerns:

  • Model: Handles data-related operations. It communicates with the database and stores the application's data.
  • View: Manages the presentation layer. It generates the user interface and displays data from the Model to the user.
  • Controller: Handles user input, processes requests, and orchestrates interactions between the Model and the View.

Here's how the MVC components interact:

1.     A user interacts with the View by sending a request.

2.     The Controller receives the request, processes it, and interacts with the Model if necessary.

3.     The Model performs operations on the data and may return a response to the Controller.

4.     The Controller selects the appropriate View and passes data to it for display.

5.     The View presents the data to the user.

This separation of responsibilities makes it easier to maintain and extend your application. If you need to change the user interface, for example, you can modify the View without affecting the Model or Controller.

Learn More: Component Diagram: UML Tutorial with EXAMPLE

MVC Example

Let's illustrate the MVC pattern with a simple example: a to-do list web application.

  • Model: Manages tasks, stores them in a database, and handles operations like adding, deleting, and updating tasks.
  • View: Displays the to-do list to the user, showing tasks and providing an interface for adding, editing, or deleting tasks.
  • Controller: Receives user requests, such as adding a new task or updating an existing one. It communicates with the Model to perform these operations and updates the View to reflect the changes.

Here's how an interaction might occur:

1.     The user opens the to-do list application (View).

2.     The View sends a request to the Controller to load the list of tasks.

3.     The Controller retrieves the tasks from the Model.

4.     The Controller sends the tasks to the View for display.

5.     The user adds a new task in the View.

6.     The View sends a request to the Controller to add the task.

7.     The Controller updates the Model with the new task.

8.     The Controller sends the updated list of tasks to the View for display.

In this way, each component has a distinct role, and changes to one component don't require altering the others, promoting code reusability and maintainability.

MVC Architecture

Here is the definite engineering of the MVC system:

Three significant MVC parts are:

Model: It incorporates every one of the information and its connected rationale

View: Present information to the client or handles client association

Regulator: A point of interaction among Model and View parts

How about we see each other this part exhaustively:


A View is that piece of the application that addresses the introduction of information.

Sees are made by the information gathered from the model information. A view demands the model to give data so it presents the result show to the client.

The view likewise addresses the information from outlines, charts, and tables. For instance, any client view will incorporate all the UI parts like text boxes, drop downs, and so on.


The Controller is that piece of the application that handles the client's cooperation. The regulator deciphers the mouse and console inputs from the client, illuminating the model, and the view to change as suitable.

A Controller sends orders to the model to refresh its state(E.g., Saving a particular report). The regulator likewise sends orders to its related view to change the view's show (For instance looking over a specific report).


The model part stores information and its connected rationale. It addresses information that is being moved between regulator parts or some other related business rationale. For instance, a Controller item will recover the client data from the data set. It controls information and sends it back to the data set or uses it to deliver similar information.

It answers the solicitation from the perspectives and furthermore answers guidelines from the regulator to refresh itself. It is likewise the least level of the example which is answerable for keeping up with information.

MVC Examples

How about we see the Model View Controller model from day to day existence:

Model 1:

We should expect you to go to a café. You won't go to the kitchen and get ready food which you can definitely do at home. All things being equal, you go there and trust that the server will come on.

Presently the server comes to you, and you request the food. The server doesn't have the foggiest idea of what your identity is and what you need he just recorded the detail of your food request.

Then, at that point, the server moves to the kitchen. In the kitchen, the server doesn't set up your food.

The cook readies your food. The server provided your request to him alongside your table number.

Cook then, at that point, arranged nourishment for you. He utilizes fixings to prepare the food. We should expect your request for a vegetable sandwich. Then he really wants bread, tomato, potato, capsicum, onion, bit, cheddar, and so forth which he sources from the fridge

Cook last hand over the food to the server. Presently it is the occupation of the server to move this food outside the kitchen.

Presently server knows which food you have requested and how they are served.

Keep reading

The vehicle driving system is one more illustration of the MVC model.

Each vehicle comprises three fundamental parts.

View= User interface : (Gear switch, boards, controlling wheel, brake, and so on.)

Regulator Mechanism (Engine)

Model-Storage (Petrol or Diesel tank)

Vehicle runs from motor take fuel from capacity, yet it runs just utilizing referenced UI gadgets.

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Well-known MVC web structures

Here, is a rundown of some well-known MVC structures:

Ruby on Rails





Spring MVC



Zend Framework



Fuel PHP


NTT 2 Years Admission

Benefits of MVC: Key Benefits

Here, are significant advantages of utilizing MVC engineering:

Simple code support which is not difficult to broaden and develop

MVC Model part can be tried independently from the client

More straightforward help for new sorts of clients

Improvement of the different parts can be performed parallelly.

It assists you with keeping away from intricacy by separating an application into three units. Model, view, and regulator

It just purposes a Front Controller design that cycles web application demands through a solitary regulator.

Offers the best help for test-driven advancement

It functions admirably for Web applications that are upheld by vast groups of website specialists and designers.

Gives a clean partition of concerns(SoC).

Website streamlining (SEO) Friendly.

All classes and items are free of one another with the goal that you can test them independently.

MVC configuration design permits the intelligent gathering of related activities on a regulator together.

Inconveniences of utilizing MVC

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Hard to peruse, change, unit test, and reuse this model

The structure route can some time complicated as it presents new layers of reflection which expect clients to adjust to the decay rules of MVC.

No conventional approval support

Expanded intricacy and Inefficiency of information

The trouble of utilizing MVC with the advanced UI

There is a requirement for various software engineers to direct resemble programming.

Information on numerous advances is required.

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