French( français) belongs to the Romance branch of the Indo- European language family. Like all love languages, it developed from Vulgar Latin spoken by the Roman raiders. Before the Roman irruption of what's France moment, the home was inhabited by a Celtic people whom the Romans called Gauls. The language of the Gauls had little impact on French. From the 3rd century on, Gaul was raided by Germanic lines whose languages had a profound effect on the Vulgar Latin of the region, especially on its vocabulary. In 1539, King Francis I made French the sanctioned language of administration and court proceedings in France, replacing Latin as the functionary written language of the country. Following a period of junction and standardization, the language spoken in the 17th- 18th centuries came the base of ultramodern French. From the 17th century on, French enjoyed the status of being the Francemaplanguage of culture and tactfulness throughout the western world. European colonization brought French to the Americas,sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia.
French is spoken in 53 countries, making it one of the most wide- spread languages of the world. It's estimated that the number of first- and alternate- language speakers of French worldwide is between 220 and 300 million people. It's an functionary,co-official or de facto public of 29 countries. Countries using French as either a first or a alternate language are located on four mainlands. Four of them are in Europe France, Belgium, Switzerland, and Luxembourg. Two are in the Americas Canada and Haiti. There are also two overseas departments of France Martinique and Guadeloupe. The rest are former French colonies in Africa and in the islets in the Indian and Pacific abysses. French is a major alternate language in Arabic- speaking Algeria, Tunis, and Morocco. The dissipation of French is due to the political, profitable, scientific, and artistic influence of France. Countries in which French is spoken are listed below. Please note that some of the figures are estimates and don't easily show the breakdown between first- and alternate- language speakers.
French verbs have the following grammatical orders There are three regular conjugations. In addition, there are numerous irregular verbs. Verbs are marked for person( 1st, 2nd, 3rd) and number( singular, plural). Verbs agree with their subjects in person and number. There are four simple tenses and five emulsion tenses. emulsion tenses are formed using the supplementary verbs être ‘ to be ’ or avoir ‘ to have ’. The ultimate is used to indicate the perfective aspect. There are four moods reflective, tentative, subjunctive, imperative. There are two voices active and unresistant. Passive constructions are formed using the supplementary verb être ‘ to be ’ past unresistant participle. French has a two- part negation,e.g., je ne sais papas ‘ I do n’t know ’, with ne indicating global negation and papas clarifying the type of negation.
The introductory word order in French is Subject- Verb- Object, but a large number of other orders is possible to indicate content and emphasis. Word order is further complicated by an commerce among emulsion verb constructions, object and adverbial pronouns, inversion, imperatives, adverbs, and negative structures. utmost adjectives follow the noun,e.g., un converse noir ‘ a black cat ’.
French vocabulary is substantially Latin- grounded,e.g., frère ‘ family ’ from Latin frater. As a result, it shares important of its introductory vocabulary with other Romance languages. A study by Walter and Walter( 1998) estimated that 12 of common French words set up in a typical wordbook such as the Petit Larousse were espoused from other languages. About 25 of these coinages are fairly recent borrowings from English(e.g., le rostbif, le week- end). Other languages that have contributed to the French wordbook are Italian, ancient Germanic languages, Arabic, German Celtic, Spanish, Dutch, Greek, Persian and Sanskrit.
Outside France, the French of Canada, firstly presumably of northwestern shoptalk type, has developed the most individual features. Although 18th- century Canadian French was regarded as exceptionally “ pure ” by metropolitan observers, it began to diverge from Parisian French after 1760 as a consequence of its insulation from the megalopolis and of the ever-stronger influence of English. Canadian French is less easily articulated, with lower lip movement and with a further monotonous accentuation, than standard French; some change in consonantal sounds occurs(/ t/ and/ d/ shift to/ ts/ and/ dz/, independently, and both k and g come palatalized( pronounced with the lingo touching the hard palate, or roof of the mouth) when followed by the letters i or e); nasal vowels tend to lose the nasal element; vocabulary and syntax are heavily Anglicized.