## Decision Tree in R- Shikshaglobe

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What are Decision Trees?

Choice Trees are adaptable Machine Learning calculation that can perform both arrangement and relapse assignments. They are exceptionally strong calculations, fit for fitting complex datasets. Also, choice trees are essential parts of irregular backwoods, which are among the most strong Machine Learning calculations accessible today. Preparing and Visualizing a choice trees in RTo construct your most memorable choice tree in R model, we will continue as

Import the information

Assuming that you are interested about the destiny of the titanic, you can watch this video on Youtube. The reason for this dataset is to anticipate which individuals are bound to get by after the crash with the chunk of ice. The dataset contains 13 factors and 1309 perceptions. The dataset is requested by the variable X. From the head and tail yield, you can see the information isn't rearranged. This is a major issue! At the point when you will divide your information between a train set and test set, you will choose just the traveler from class 1 and 2 (No traveler from class 3 are in the main 80% of the perceptions), and that implies the calculation won't ever see the highlights of traveler of class 3. This error will prompt unfortunate expectation.

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Decision Tree in R: A Comprehensive Guide

In the world of data analysis and machine learning, decision trees are a powerful tool for making informed choices and predictions. If you're interested in harnessing the potential of decision trees using the R programming language, you've come to the right place. In this article, we'll take you through the ins and outs of decision trees in R, from the basics to more advanced topics.

1. Introduction to Decision Trees
2. Why Use Decision Trees in R?
3. Installing Necessary Packages
5. Creating a Decision Tree Model
6. Understanding Decision Tree Structure
7. Pruning Decision Trees
8. Evaluating Model Performance
9. Handling Categorical Variables
10. Visualizing Decision Trees
11. Handling Imbalanced Data
12. Ensemble Methods with Decision Trees
13. Tuning Hyperparameters
14. Real-World Applications
15. Conclusion

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Now, let's dive into each section to gain a deep understanding of decision trees in R.

1. Introduction to Decision Trees

Decision trees are a popular machine learning algorithm used for both classification and regression tasks. They mimic human decision-making processes by creating a tree-like structure of decisions and their possible consequences. Each internal node represents a decision based on a feature, while each leaf node represents an outcome or prediction.

2. Why Use Decision Trees in R?

R is a versatile programming language for data analysis and visualization. It offers numerous advantages when working with decision trees, such as a wide range of packages and libraries specifically designed for machine learning.

3. Installing Necessary Packages

Before diving into decision tree modeling, you'll need to install and load the relevant R packages. Some of the essential packages include 'rpart' and 'rpart. plot.'

Clean and well-prepared data is crucial for building accurate decision tree models. This section will guide you through the process of loading and preprocessing your dataset.

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5. Creating a Decision Tree Model

Learn how to build a decision tree model using the 'rpart' package in R. We'll cover model training, parameter tuning, and more.

6. Understanding Decision Tree Structure

A deep understanding of how decision trees work is essential for effective modeling. We'll explore decision tree structure, including nodes, branches, and criteria.

7. Pruning Decision Trees

Pruning helps prevent overfitting and ensures your decision tree model generalizes well to unseen data. Discover how to prune decision trees for better performance.

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8. Evaluating Model Performance

Measuring the performance of your decision tree model is vital. We'll discuss evaluation metrics like accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score.

9. Handling Categorical Variables

Dealing with categorical variables in decision trees can be tricky. Learn different techniques to handle them effectively.

10. Visualizing Decision Trees

Visualizing decision trees can provide valuable insights. We'll use rpart.plot to create visually appealing tree diagrams.

11. Handling Imbalanced Data

Imbalanced datasets can lead to biased models. Find out how to address this issue and ensure your decision tree performs well on skewed data.

12. Ensemble Methods with Decision Trees

Ensemble methods like Random Forest and Gradient Boosting can enhance the power of decision trees. Learn how to implement them in R.

13. Tuning Hyperparameters

Fine-tuning hyperparameters can significantly impact your model's performance. We'll delve into hyperparameter tuning techniques.

14. Real-World Applications

Explore practical applications of decision trees in various fields, from finance to healthcare.

Clean the dataset

The design of the information shows a few factors have Na's. Information tidy up to be finished as follows Drop factors home. dest, cabin, name, X and ticket Make factor factors for pclass and made due Make train/test set Before you train your model, you really want to perform two stages: Make a train and test set: You train the model on the train set and test the forecast on the test set (for example concealed information)Introduce rpart. plot from the control center The normal practice is to divided the information 80/20, 80 percent of the information prepares the model, and 20 percent to make forecasts. You want to make two separate information outlines. You would rather not touch the test set until you wrap up building your model. You can make a capability name create_train_test() that takes three contentions.

You start at the root hub (profundity 0 north of 3, the highest point of the diagram):

At the top, it is the general likelihood of endurance. It shows the extent of traveler that endure the accident. 41% of traveler made due. This hub finds out if the orientation of the traveler is male. In the event that indeed, you go down to the root's left kid hub (profundity 2). 63% are guys with an endurance likelihood of 21%.In the subsequent hub, you inquire as to whether the male traveler is above 3.5 years old. In the event that indeed, the opportunity of endurance is 19%.You continue to go like that to comprehend what highlights influence the probability of endurance. Note that, one of the numerous characteristics of Decision Trees is that they require next to no information readiness. Specifically, they don't need include scaling or focusing. As a matter of course, rpart() capability utilizes the Gini pollutant measure to part the note. The higher the Gini coefficient, the more various occasions inside the hub.

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Make a forecast

You can foresee your test dataset. To make a forecast, you can utilize the foresee() capability. The fundamental grammar of anticipate for R choice tree is: Measure execution You can figure an exactness measure for order task with the disarray grid: The disarray network is a superior decision to assess the grouping execution. The overall thought is to count the times True occasions are arranged are False. Each line in a disarray grid addresses a genuine objective, while every section addresses an anticipated objective. The primary line of this network thinks about dead travelers (the False class): 106 were accurately delegated dead (True negative), while the leftover one was wrongly named a survivor (False certain). The subsequent line considers the survivors, the positive class were 58 (True certain), while the True negative was 30.You can process the precision test from the disarray network.

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